World AIDS Day: Distinction between HIV and AIDS – how virus spreads, signs and remedy | Well being Information

World AIDS Day 2022: Yearly on December 1, World AIDS Day is noticed when folks present assist to these dwelling with HIV and keep in mind those that have died from AIDS and associated diseases. This yr, the theme of World AIDS Day is ‘Equalize’. The goal is to finish the inequalities that are holding again progress in ending AIDS. The layman typically errors HIV and AIDS for a similar factor however there is a marked distinction between the 2. Dr Kiran G Kulirankal, Infectious Ailments Doctor, Division of Infectious Ailments, Amrita Hospital, Kochi, speaks to us in regards to the care, remedy, and distinction between AIDS and HIV. 

In 1981 – following experiences of a rise within the incidence of surprising infections like Kaposi sarcoma, a cancerous pink boils on the pores and skin, and Pneumocystis carinii an infection which is uncommon pneumonia in regular people – Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first described. 

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HIV Vs AIDS: The distinction

The very first thing to notice is that HIV is a virus that will trigger an an infection whereas AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a situation. AIDS is acquired solely after the contraction of HIV, however not all HIV instances don’t develop AIDS. 


AIDS is attributable to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system of the physique thereby leaving the person incapable to battle in opposition to infections. The result’s elevated susceptibility to numerous opportunistic infections and infection-associated malignancies. 

How HIV spreads and develops into AIDS

HIV is transmitted by sexual contact, publicity to blood and blood merchandise (IV drug abuse) and so on. HIV can be transmitted from contaminated moms to infants often called vertical transmission, says Dr Kiran G Kulirankal.

He provides that untreated HIV illness is a persistent progressive course of that begins with preliminary an infection typically referred to as the first HIV syndrome after which progresses in adults over a interval of greater than 10 years to the late stage, AIDS. 

“The viral load with the ensuing discount within the immunity of the physique (CD4 immune cells and its depend) sees a gradual improve. The decrease the depend, the upper the diploma of immunosuppression,” says Dr Kulirankal.

HIV signs and care

“HIV is related to all kinds of scientific manifestations based mostly on which they’re grouped. Unexplained fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, weight reduction, and pores and skin rashes are widespread presenting signs. Demise is often secondary to opportunistic infections like Tuberculosis, parasitic and fungal infections of the mind, pneumonia, tumours, and malignancy,” says Dr Kulirankal.

However there’s excellent news. The physician factors out that with the event of inexpensive and extremely efficient anti-retroviral remedy (ART), HIV is not a demise sentence. Sufferers who’re identified early and have been began on ART can lead regular lives.

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